Fire, Wind & Yesterday

Fire, Wind & Yesterday is a story about a time and place quite unfamiliar even to many well-read people. This glossary is provided to help the reader keep track of people and places found in the story.

Underlined names have an historical basis in other references.  Names not underlines cannot be matched with historical individuals or places and may be unique to this tale.

Aaron ben Nisi — son of the Khazar Kagan, Nisi ben Menasseh
Abru — a Derevlian merchant of Dneprokiev (Kiev)
Agaruk — Sadruk’s father
al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh — Abbasid Caliph of Islam in Samarra until assassinated in December, 861
Anthimus — Greek healer and food expert, 6th century A.D.
Arappi — a metalsmith in Etil
Askold — a prince of the upper Dnepr
Atelkuzu — a name for the region around the lower Dnepr
Mount Athos — “Holy Mountain” in Greece with twenty monasteries comprising the center of Eastern Orthodox monasticism
Atye — name not historically verified, wife of the Khazar Kagan, Nisi ben Menasseh
Aurelius Celsus — 1st century Roman physician and medical writer
Avek — a river in Lithuania
Azov — a northern extension of the Black Sea Russia, bordered by Ukraine and Russia
Balta — Baltic Sea
Blodensk — village in Ukraine to the south and west of Kiev
bocolabrass., what the Avars called a shaman or sorcerer
Boris I — ruler of Bulgária who converted to Christianity around A.D. 864
Bugra-dezhu — old shaman of Pinea
Bulgars — a population inhabiting the region of the upper Volga, north of Khazaria, also describing some who migrated toward present-day Bulgária
Caspian — landlocked sea bordered by Russia, Iran, and three former USSR republics
Chersonthema Chersōnos, also spelled Kherson, busy Byzantine outpost originally located on the southeastern shore of the Crimean peninsula and important in trade and diplomatic relations with the Khazars
Christos — Christ, the Christ
Combriedo de Palma — a merchant of Mallorca, stranded in Granitsu
Constantine — early saint (Konstantin) for whom Constantinople (now Istanbul) was named, also the 9th century Greek priest, mentioned in this story, who later changed his name to Cyril (Kiril)
Craizamon — a Khazar warlord who roamed the steppe in the mid-9th century
Cyril — early saint (Kiril) for whom Constantine in this story renamed himself, now one of the patron saints of Russia along with Methodius (Mefhodi)
Darband — ancient city on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, also spelled Derbent
Daryetta — mother of Laïsha
Davnoy — second son of Abru
Dioscorides — 1st century Greek physician and pharmacologist
Dir — a prince in the region of Kiev
Dnepr River — Dnieper River
Dneprokiev — previously unknown name for the city of Kiev (Kiev-on-the-Dnepr)
Don — River in southern Russia
Donau — Danube (“Mother”) River
Donets — a tributary of the Don
Dregovichian — an ancient tribe of east Slavs in the region roughly through Lithuania and east Poland
Drizha — 9th century village on the fringe between forest and steppe, south of Pinea
Drukov — son of Sadruk
Etil — also spelled Itil, capital of Khazaria
Euthymios — Greek bishop who visited Kolyek along with his brother Simonos, a hieromonk
Foredya — Magyar nomad who sold Kolyek the card
Francia — France
Gamaliel — son of Laïsha and Kolyek
Gainnis (Greek), Gian (Italian) — John
Gian-Pietro — Greek hieromonk made bishop who started the church in Granitsu
Giannis Chrystostom — (St. John Chrystostom) the “golden-voiced” 4th century saint of the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches
Galen — 2nd century Greek anatomist who also attempted to describe the function of the vascular system
Gonashi — Kolyek’s shepherd and neighbor, who lived to the north, toward Pinea
Granitsu — trading town on the right (west) bank of the lower Dnepr
Grom — a lieutenant of Khazar warlord Jackal
Ilyana — Kolyek’s mother
Ingul — a river of southern Ukraine flowing into the Black Sea
Ingulets — a river in southern Ukraine parallel to the Ingul
Itil — also spelled Etil, capital of the Khazar Kaganate
the Jackal — petty Khazar warlord named this story
Kagan — another title for Khan, Knyaz, Prince, King, Ruler, in a sense, Khan of Khans or King of Kings, more title than substance in the first millennium A.D., although, by the ninth century, the Kagan of the Khazars had become exceedingly regal
Khatun — of the Kagan’s many wives, the wife who filled the rôle comparable to a queen in the west
Khazaria — area in southern Russia from the mouth of the Volga and westward into the steppe
Khazars — people of Khazaria, generally thought to be heavily Persian in origin
Ki — ancient Slavic prince for whom Kiev was named
Kiril — Cyril
Kirochi — female patient of Kolyek, briefly mentioned
Kolyei — diminutive or affectionate name for Kolyek
Kolyek — the Slav whose manuscript is the basis of Fire, Wind & Yesterday
Konstantin — Constantine
Konstantinopolis — Constantinople (now Istanbul)
Krim — Crimea or Crimean peninsula on the north side of the Black Sea
Kunedsi — 9th century Varangian prince mentioned in this story
Laïsha — daughter of Khazar trader Vennamar, slave of Derevlian merchant Abru, finally wife of Kolyek
Latchek —Kolyek’s twin brother
Levedia — ancient city in southern Russia
Mefhodi — 9th century monk (Methodius) mentioned in this story, now one of the patron saints of Russia, along with the priest Kiril (Cyril)
Margaronis — Greek logician mentioned in the story
Marhya — Laïsha’s original name, later the name taken by the girl adopted by Laïsha and Kolyek
Matarka — ancient trading city on the south shore of the Sea of Azov
Methodius — Mefhodi
Muzhitsa — wife of Vlatislav, magistrate of Pinea
Myenko — one of Jackal’s band who became loyal to Laïsha and Kolyek
Nagalyeva — widow from Drizha who accompanied the mission from Drizha eastward
Natti — Laïsha’s younger sister, younger than Yarrel
Neman River — westward-flowing river through Lithuania
Nicæa — also spelled Nicea, city in Turkey
Nisi ben Menasseh — Kagan of the Khazars at the time of this story
Obemyn-Chuv — pagan god, protector of prisoners and slaves
Panticapæum — ancient trading city between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea
Patmos — in this story, probably refers to one of the Greek islands of the Dodecanese
Pecheneg — 9th century tribe of the steppe north and east of Khazaria
Pechersk — caves along the Dnepr near Kiev
Perenemansk — village near the Neman River where Kolyek was born
Perun — pagan god of thunder
Peshewar — also spelled Peshawar, trading city in Pakistan
Petros (Greek), Pietro (Italian) — Peter
Photios — Patriarch of the Orthodox church, headquartered in Konstantinopolis
Pinea — 9th century village in the forest south of Kiev
Podil — the sloping riverbank of Kiev
Polotnoy — neighbor to the south of Sadruk and Kolyek, toward Drizha
Polyanian — any 9th century inhabitant of the area west of the Dnepr between Kiev and the Black Sea
Polychrono — monastery of Mefhodi
Pyoss — Russak’s dog
Rastislav — 9th century ruler of Moravia, near present Czech Republic
Raznoy — first son of Abru
Rurik — prince who began ruling Kiev around A.D. 863
Russak — Dregovichian hunter turned fugitive
Sadruk — physician outside Pinea who accepted Kolyek as apprentice
Saint Sophia — here refers to 6th century Church of the Holy Wisdom in Constantinople (Hagia Sophia) built by order of Emperor Justinian I
Sarkel — 9th century city on the lower Don
Sarmatia — name given by 5th century B.C. Greek historian, Herodotus, to what was later Khazaria, also once used to describe all of Russia from the Caspian Sea to the Baltic Sea
Scythian — one who inhabited the steppe north of the Black Sea until the 3rd century B.C. when subdued by the Sarmatians
Semender — the Kagan’s summer home on the Caspian Sea
Shonsak — possibly a pagan god
Shorgat — a lieutenant of Khazar warlord the Jackal
Simonos — Greek monk who visited Kolyek along with his brother Euthymios, a bishop
Sosigenes — Greek astronomer who may have helped design the Julian calendar
Sounion — a promontory on the coast of Greece southeast of Athens
Stallo  — son of the shepherd, Gonashi
Stribog — pagan god of winds
Svarog — pagan god of the blacksmith’s fire
Tabiti — pagan goddess, the Great Mother
Taggia — wife of Drukov
Tangrï — also spelled Tengrï, a pagan god
Tokharian — an extinct east Asian language
Turgey — erstwhile friend of Kolyek and Sadruk
Ukraina — Ukraine
Valkolyak — Kolyek’s father
Varangian — Viking; Varangians/Vikings
Venezia — Venice, Italy
Vennamar — Khazar trader in Etil, father of Laïsha
Vlatislav — magistrate of Pinea
Voronyonok — raven chick found by Russak
Yarrel — Laïsha’s younger sister, older than Natti
Yeshua — Jesus
Yomo — the sow
Zhukin — Kolyek’s uncle, (his mother’s brother)

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Table of ContentsTranslator’s ForewordPreludeHistorical Perspective – People and Places